Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2015, Page: 1-5
Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Vetivera zizanioides, Cymbopogon citrates and Helianthus annuls
Yashim Zakka Israila, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Agbaji Edith Bola, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Gimba Casimir Emmanuel, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Idris Suleiman Ola, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Received: Dec. 15, 2014;       Accepted: Dec. 30, 2014;       Published: Jan. 20, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajac.20150301.11      View  2538      Downloads  182
Abstract
The research work under field conditions is to investigate the connection between the heavy metals concentration in soil and their bioaccumulation in Vetivera zizanioides, Cymbopogon citrates (Lemon grass) and Helianthus annuls (sunflower) collected from experimental site and a control area in Zaria-Nigeria. The collection was done by dividing the experimental and control sites each into four quadrants, five plants samples of each species and soil samples were collected from each quadrant in a diagonal basis. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in different parts of each of the plant species collected from the experimental and control soils were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experimental levels of the metals were higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those at the control site and the limits recommended by Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation (FAO/WHO). The heavy metal concentrations were higher in leaves (P ≤ 0.05) than in roots of the plants tested. Vetivera zizanioides showed the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values for the studied metals greater than 1 (except Co and Pb that had their BF less than 1). Cymbopogon citratus showed BF values of Cd, Ni and Pb were greater than 1, but TF of all the metals studied were greater than 1. Helianthus annus plant had BF values for Cd, Cu and Zn greater than 1, but TF values for all the metals studied were greater than 1. This indicated that Vetivera zizanioides, Cymbopogon citrates and Helianthus annuls have good phytoextraction potentials for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils.
Keywords
Vetivera Zizanioides, Cymbopogon Citrates, Helianthus Annuls, Bioaccumulation Factor, Translocation Factor, Phytoextraction
To cite this article
Yashim Zakka Israila, Agbaji Edith Bola, Gimba Casimir Emmanuel, Idris Suleiman Ola, Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Vetivera zizanioides, Cymbopogon citrates and Helianthus annuls, American Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.20150301.11
Reference
[1]
Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. Trace elements in the Soil and Plants. CRC Press, Boca raton, FL, 1989.
[2]
Appel, C. and Ma, L. Heavy metals in the Environment – Concentration, pH and surface charge effects on Cd and Pb sorption in three tropical soils. Journal of Environmental Quality.2002, 21: 589.
[3]
Nascimento, C. W. A. and Xing, B. Phytoextraction: A review on enhanced metal availability and plant accumulation. Science Agricutre. 2006, 63(3). 299-311.
[4]
Chaney, R. L., Malik, M., Li, Y. M., Brown, S. L., Brewer, E. P. and Angle, J. S. Phytoremediation of soil metals. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 1997, 8:279–284.
[5]
Luo, C. L., Shen, Z. G., Li, X. D. Enhanced phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd with EDTA and EDDS. Chemosphere. 2005, 59: 1-11.
[6]
Evangelou, M. W. H., Ebel, M. and Schaeffer, A. Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soils. Effect, mechanism, toxicity, and fate of chelating agents. Chemosphere. 2007, 68: 989-1003.
[7]
Zhuang, X. L.; Chen, J.; Shim, H. and Bai, Z. New advances in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for bioremediation. Environ. Int. 2007, 33: 406-413.
[8]
Saifullah, A., Meers, E., Qadir, M., de Caritat, P., Tack, F.M.G., Du Laing, G. and Zia, M.H. EDTA-assisted Pb phytoextraction. Chemosphere. 2009, 74: 1279–1291.
[9]
Nuonom, L., Yemefack, M., Techienkwa, M. and Njongang, R. Impact of natural fallow duration on Cameron. Nigerian Journal of Soil Research. 2000, 3: 52-57.
[10]
Kisku. G. C., Barman. S. C. and Shargava, S. K. Contamination of Soil and plants with PTE Irrigated with mixed industrial effluent and its impact on the a environment. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 2000, 120: 121 – 137.
[11]
Sun, Y., Zhou, Q., Xu, Y., Wang, L. and Liang, X. The role of EDTA on Cadmium phytoextraction in a Cadmium- hyperaccumulator Rorippa globosa. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2011, 3(3): 45-51.
[12]
FAO/WHO. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Technical Report Series. Vol. 859,1995.
[13]
Truong, P.N. and Baker, D. Vetiver grass system for environmental protection. Technical Bulletin no. 1998/1. Pacific Rim Vetiver Network. Royal Development Projects Board, Bangkok, Thailand.
[14]
Aremu, M. O., Ogundola, A. F. and Emmanuel, O. T. Phytoextraction Potential of Vetivera zizanioides on heavy metals. European Journal. 2013, 9(15): 89-96.
[15]
Johnson, K.A., Mutiau, O.A., Agbaje, T.A., Bose, A.O., Mafe, O.F. and Adeniyi, A.S. Phytoremediation Potentials of Sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annus) for metals in soils contaminate with zinc and lead nitrates. Water Air Soil Pollution.2010, 207,195-201.
[16]
Gennaro, B., Karam, F., Pedro, S. R., Massimo, F., Franco, N. and Nicola, S. Heavy metals accumulation and distribution in durum wheat and barley grown in contaminated soils under Mediterranean field conditions. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2012,7(2): 160-174.
[17]
Baker, A. J. M. and Brooks, R. R. terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – A review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery. 1989; 1: 81 – 126.
[18]
Paz-Ferreiro, J., Lu, H., Fu, S., Méndez, A., and Gascó, G.: Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review, Solid Earth, 5, 65-75, doi: 10.5194/se-5-65-2014, 2014.
Browse journals by subject