Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2018, Page: 78-95
Esterification Between Citric acid and Pumpkin Pips’ Organic Molecules – Esters Hydrolysis And Esters Used as Hydrocarbons Additives
Andry Tahina Rabeharitsara, Chemical Process Engineering Department (E. S. P. A), Antananarivo University, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Paulin Merix Raharilaza, Chemical Process Engineering Department (E. S. P. A), Antananarivo University, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Nambinina Richard Randriana, Chemical Process Engineering Department (E. S. P. A), Antananarivo University, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Received: May 20, 2018;       Accepted: Jun. 7, 2018;       Published: Jul. 10, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajac.20180603.12      View  613      Downloads  40
Abstract
Commonly, organicians used various technical like pressurized extraction, solvent extraction to extract essential oils and to isolate thereafter organics molecules in a vegetable organism. This new method consisted in extracting selectively and directly the organic molecules present in a vegetable organism, in this case the organic molecules present in pumpkin pips by esterification with citric acid molecules which were not only esterified by the alcohols and amines functions of the organic molecules present in the vegetable organism but also they esterified, by its alcohol functions, the acid function of the organic molecules present in the same vegetable organism. Operating conditions and procedure were taken into account and these allow us to reach an esterification rate equals to 72.80% at the most. Thus, esters of citric acid and esters of organic molecules’ acid present in the pumpkin pips in quantities but also with quality were obtained. The presence of xanthophyll esters, riboflavin esters, citric acid esters, well quality fatty-acid esters and probably amides of citric acid molecules were certain. That led us to do auto-inflammation tests of hydrocarbons (Super-Gasoil-Fueloil) with esters of pumpkin pips’ organic molecules as additives. Finally, trying to separate the organic molecules having been esterified or esterifying with the citric acid molecules, hydrolysis reaction tests were carried out with a regeneration rate of citric acid molecules equal to 36.50% compared with the initial citric acid molecules quantities and 50.14% compared with the total ester quantity of the sample. The extraction of pumpkin pips’ organic molecules like xanthophyll, riboflavin, well quality fatty-acids and probably other interesting organic molecules according to the bibliography were certain.
Keywords
Citric Acid, Pumpkin Pips, Esterification, Hydrolysis, Xanthophyll, Riboflavin, Fatty-Acids, Auto-Inflammation Test
To cite this article
Andry Tahina Rabeharitsara, Paulin Merix Raharilaza, Nambinina Richard Randriana, Esterification Between Citric acid and Pumpkin Pips’ Organic Molecules – Esters Hydrolysis And Esters Used as Hydrocarbons Additives, American Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp. 78-95. doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.20180603.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
M. Laffitte, F. Rouquerol La réaction chimique Tome 2. Aspects thermodynamiques (suite) et cinétiques, 1991, Eds. Masson p. 22.
[2]
Silva AM, Kong X, Hider RC, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King’s College London, London, UK « Determination of the pKa of the hydroxyl group in the alpha-hydroxycarboxylates citrate, malate and lactate by 13C NMR: implications for metal coordination in biological systems » http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288211.
[3]
Citric acid/C6H8O7 - PubChem
[4]
Gougerot-Schwartz A. “Cosmétologie et dermatologie esthétique” Encyclopedie Méd. Chir. (2000) 7p.
[5]
Sammy Eric ANDRIAMBOLA «Valorisation de l’acide citrique en polymères et en sels de mono- di- et tri-ammonium». Mémoire de fin d’étude en vue de l’obtention du diplôme d’Ingénieur en Génie Chimique. E. S. P. A. Université d’Antananarivo. 2013.
[6]
M. Laffitte, F. Rouquerol La réaction chimique Tome 2. Aspects thermodynamiques (suite) et cinétiques, 1991, Eds. Masson p. 30.
[7]
O'Neil, M. J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013, p. 416.
[8]
United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service USDA Food Composition Databases – Pumpkin pips.
[9]
https://www.labellevie.com/produit/6778-huile-de-pepin-de-courge-guenard-25-cl « L’huile de pépin de courge ».
[10]
http://www.foodfactsmercola.com/pumpkins.html «vertus des graines de courges » Dr Mercola.
[11]
http://www.huiles-et-sens.com/fr/467-huile-de-pépins-de-courge-bio.html
[12]
https://www.mr-plantes.com/2014/05/huile-de-pepins-de-courge/
[13]
AINAHARILALA Fahitra Ny Oliva Miaina « Etudes comparatives de l’huile de graine de courge et de l’huile de germe de blé » Mémoire Licence en Génie des Procédés Chimiques et Industriels – ESPA – 2016.
[14]
https://www.cnrs.fr/cnrs-images/chimieaulycee/THEMES/organique/ester
[15]
Catherine SARAZIN – Acides aminés, peptides, protéines – Biochimie 2016.
[16]
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amide
[17]
RAHARINIRINA Lovatiana « Etude chimique de feuilles et de noyau de persea americana de Madagascar et évaluation de leur activité anti-oxydante » – Mémoire Ingéniorat en Génie des Procédés Chimiques et Industriels – ESPA – 2015.
[18]
RAFALIMANANA Ifaharantsoa Sederaniaina « Contribution à l’étude chimique et alimentaire de pépin de raisin - Mémoire Licence en Génie des Procédés Chimiques et Industriels – ESPA – 2016.
[19]
M. ANDRIAMBALOHERY Setrarivo « Contribution à la préparation d’acide sulfurique et d’ammoniac à partir du sulfate d’ammonium catalysée par l’acide citrique » - Mémoire Ingéniorat en Génie chimique – ESPA – 2012.
[20]
Riboflavine U.S. National Library of Medecine HSBD:RIBOFLAVIN CASRN:83-88-5.
[21]
http://changer-la-couleur.e-monsite.com/pages/partie-1/b-les-differents-types.html. Les pigments non azotés - Xanthophylle
[22]
M. THOMAS Fenohery « Contribution à la valorisation de l’huile de palme en ester et polyester par estérification avec de l’acide citrique – Effet de l’acidité et du fer » - Mémoire Ingéniorat en génie chimique – ESPA – 2014.
[23]
sciences-physiques.ac-montpellier.fr/ABCDORGA/Famille/Produit/Medicam.htm
[24]
-sciences-physiques.ac-montpellier.fr/ABCDORGA/Famille/Produit/acidolei.html
[25]
sciences-physiques.ac-montpellier.fr/ABCDORGA/Famille/.../ACIDES%20GRAS.html
[26]
http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB9854361.htm
[27]
(en) Marvin J. Weber et al. (préf. Marvin J. Weber), Handbook of Optical Materials, CRC Press, 24 September 2002, 536p. ISBN 0-8493-3512-4 et 978-0849335129.
[28]
https://www.scbt.com ›... › Inhibitors, Activators, Substrates › Protein › CPA
[29]
www.chemspider.com/ChemicalStructure.21111876.html
[30]
www.molbase.com/en/476-28-8-moldata-1486454.html
[31]
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259650812
[32]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/Harmine
[33]
www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.4807.html
[34]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/Tryptamine
[35]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/Serotonine
[36]
www.chemnet.com › CAS Zolmitryptan
[37]
www.chemnet.com › CAS Ajmalicine
[38]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/Tabersonine
[39]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/apigenin
[40]
www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.4444051.html
[41]
www.chembk.com/en/chem/pentagalloylglucose
[42]
Zeynep Özer, a, aSeher Gök, bHakan Altan, aFeride Severcanb aDepartment of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Cankaya Ankara, Turkey bDepartment of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Cankaya Ankara, Turkey - Concentration-Based Measurement Studies of L-Tryptophan Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS).
[43]
http://perso.numericable.fr/chimorga/Niveau_L2L3/acides/acides.php)
[44]
http://www4.ac-nancy-metz.fr/physique/liens/Jumber/Acides/les_acides_fichiers/acides.htm
[45]
M. Laffitte, F. Rouquerol La réaction chimique Tome 2. Aspects thermodynamiques (suite) et cinétiques, 1991, Eds. Masson p. 29.
[46]
Andry Tahina Rabeharitsara, Phandry Nomena Ndjiva Rabearimihaja - Betacarotenes Dosage by Hydrofluoric Acid Solution and Validation of This New Process by SPC - American Journal of Applied Chemistry in Vol. 4, Issue Number 3, June 2016.
[47]
M. RABEARIMIHAJA Phandry Nomena Ndjiva – « Valorisation du bétacarotène extraite de l’huile de palme brute par de l’acide acétique pour la détermination des teneurs en eau de produits pétroliers (Gasoil-Fueloil) et dosage des teneurs en bétacarotène par l’acide fluorhydrique » – Mémoire d’Ingénieur en Génie de Procédés Chimiques et Industriels – ESPA – 2016.
[48]
D. scheidecker, M. bouloux, Lipides – Techniques d’exctraction et de dosage - Principaux indices des matières grasses.
[49]
Méthodes unifiées pour l’analyse des matières grasses, 3ème rapport de la commission internationale pour l’étude des matières grasses – 1948.
[50]
“Acid value” The free Dictionary. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
[51]
“Saponification value of fats and oils” Retrieved January, 2018.
[52]
Frank J. Thiessen, Davis N. Dales Automotive Principles and Service (List of gasoline additives).
[53]
Andry Tahina Rabeharitsara, Marie Nicole Rabemananjara, Nambinina Richard Randriana, Haritiana Jeannelle Rakotonirina, Edouard Andrianarison, André Razafimandefitra, Baholy Robijaona - Chemical Process Engineering Department (E. S. P. A), Antananarivo University, Antananarivo, Madagascar - Auto-Inflammation Test of Black Citric Acid Polymer (PN) and Fuel Oil (FO) Mixes - Coke Formation - American Journal of Applied Chemistry in Vol. 5, Issue Number 3, June 2017.
[54]
http://infoterre.brgm.fr/rapports/RP-63966-FR.pdf
[55]
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classification_des_hydrocarbures_liquides
[56]
http://luis.lemoyne.free.fr/Combustion%20Chap1.pdf
[57]
http://www.uqac.ca/chimie_ens/Cinetique_chimique/CHAP_7.html
[58]
https://www.britannica.com/science/combustion/Physical-and-chemical-aspects-of-combustion
[59]
Supercarburant sans plomb 98 – Comité Professionnel Du Pétrole – Dossier réglementaire 1er Février 2009.
[60]
MKF/QSE/Q- Révision 3-02/11/2005 – TOTAL France 24.cours Michelet 92069 Paris La Défense.
[61]
Gazole non routier CSR 4-1-01 – 27 Juin 2011.
[62]
MKE/BE/POM-BNL/PQM- Révision 00 (mars 2009)- TOTAL BELGIUM- 93, rue du Commerce – 1040 Bruxelles.
[63]
Pacific biodiesel © - Biodiesel Benefits 2018.
Browse journals by subject